Vitamin K – Phyllochinon

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is of great importance for blood clotting and bone development. There are other forms of vitamin K: Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone or phytonadione) and vitamin K2 (menaquinones or MKs).
Vitamin K1 comes from plants and is especially evident in green leafy vegetables, broccoli and Brussels sprouts. Vitamin K content can change, depending on the season, since vitamin K1 production is linked to photosynthesis.
Vitamin K2 is of bacterial origin which is present in the human intestines. Whether this Vitamin K formed by bacteria contributes to satisfy daily requirements is not yet fully understood.

Functions in the Body

  • Important for blood clotting
  • Maintains healthy bones

Deficiency Symptoms

  • Vitamin K deficiency does not normally occur in healthy adults. Deficiency is usually due to disorders of fat absorption in the intestines or parenteral nutrition. A deficiency causes excessive bleeding.


No adverse side effects have been observed in healthy adults, even following prolonged intake of vitamin K in large quantities.


+ None are known
– High intake of vitamin A or vitamin E leads to vitamin K deficiency.


Green vegetables such as spinach, onions, Brussels sprouts, Swiss chard, cauliflower and leeks. Also, vegetable oils, oatmeal, potatoes, tomatoes, asparagus and butter.
Vitamin K2 is found in dairy products, such as cheese.

Recommended Daily Amounts

Young people 70 µg /60 µg
Adults 70 µg /60 µg
Adults over 65 years old 80 µg /65 µg

«5 a Day» Helps Your Vitamin Supply

Daily vitamin K requirements are already fulfilled by consuming 16 grams of Swiss chard, 21 grams of onion, 23 grams of spinach, 26 grams of cauliflower, 27 grams of fennel, 29 grams of leek or 33 grams of lamb’s lettuce or endive salad. Fruits contain very little vitamin K: For example, it would take 1.6 kilos of apples to meet the daily requirements.